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Brief history of Baja California

By Marco Antonio Samaniego

On June 21, 1821, Lieutenant Fernando de la Toba was temporarily in charge of the civil and military government of the province of Baja California. due to the owner’s illness; but this, the cavalry captain presided over José Darío Arguello, recovered from his ailments, he returned to exercise both authorities, the following October 6. At the beginning of March 1822, Lieutenant Fernando de la Toba, commander of arms of the southern jurisdiction, swears, in the mission of San José del Cabo, the act of national Independence, intimidated by two Chilean corsairs the boat Independencia and the Araucano brig. These ships shelled from the squadron of the famous Lord Cochrane on the western coasts of New Spain with the design of running on the Spanish flag, blocking the ports, provoking insurrection in the coastal populations or helping them, come from Alta California, where the efforts of his captains have crashed against the strong measures of the governor.

While the events of San José del Cabo are consummating, the brig goes up the gulf anchored in the San Dionisio cove, and its liberating crew sacks the town and the temple of Nuestra Señora de Loreto. Arguello, surprised, flees to Comondú, the pirate corsairs chase him, they reach him in

the ravines of Las Parras, and they strip him of some pieces of carved silver belonging to the mission he is trying to save.

The sailors of the Araucano immediately enraged by the distribution of the booty, part of them revolted, setting sail for Guaymas, but soon they returned and fraternized with their abandoned companions of fortune. Lieutenant José Manuel Ruiz, in the hands of whom authority had fallen in these critical circumstances, returned it to Captain José Darío Argiuello on April 18, an imperial commissioner soon arrived. Canon Agustín Fernández de San Vicente recognizes Iturbide, dismisses the Spanish governor, in his place puts Lieutenant Fernando de la Toba, issues a mission regulation (June 23), initiates the municipal regime and installs (July 27 ) the municipalities of Loreto, San José del Cabo and San Antonio.

Toba authorizes the city councils to sell vacant land in their respective demarcations, and consequently that of San Antonio publishes a relative side (September 28).

After his commission, the privileged Agustín Fernández de San Vicente heads to Alta California, but before embarking on the trip, using his ample powers, he deposes Toba, and replaces him on October 3 with Lieutenant José Manuel Ruiz. This old and dignified military man, graying in the service of the missions, founder of San Pedro Mártir (1794) and Santa Catarina Mártir (1795), repeals the power granted by his predecessor to the municipalities, to grant vacant lands in colonization José Arce. proclaimed in Mexico the Constitution of 1824, the province of Alta California is considered as the territory of the federation, and, as such, immediately subject to the supreme government. The colonization law of the General Congress of August 18 of the same year was promulgated. Ruiz, in an official note addressed to the Ministry of Relations (December 18), asks for the regulation

referred to in article 16 of the aforementioned law, and the minister Don Lucas Alemán replies that it is working on the matter (February 26, 1825 ). Having appointed Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers José María de Echeandía as the political superior chief and general commander of the territory of both Californias, Ruiz made him known in Loreto (June 23, 1825). Echeandía consults with the new Dominican missionaries who have accompanied him from Mexico, the best way to distribute among the Indians the wastelands of the understanding of certain missions, and to that effect they issue a provisional regulation in Comondú (August 19); continues his march to Santa Bárbara, in Alta California, residence of the superior government, and leaves as subordinate political chief (October), due to the resignation of José Manuel Ruiz to lieutenant Fernando de la Toba, who held the position until mid-June 1826 , replacing him by Lieutenant José María Padrés, who, being a member of the most excellent territorial deputation, is appointed deputy to the Congress of the Union, and upon withdrawing from the peninsula without the knowledge and approval of the superior government, deposits (October 28) the political command in the mayor of Loreto, citizens

Parents

presented (February 12, 1827) to Congress a project to consolidate colonized peninsular property; this initiative was returned by the government commission (September 22, 1828), on the grounds that the government did not issue the required report. Arce continued to function until the end of December 1826. The municipal elections are verified for 1827, and the 1st mayor of Loreto who is elected, citizen Miguel Mesa, receives from Arce on January 1 and exercises political command throughout the year. 1827. The same fate for the year 1828 was given to the

citizen José Mesa, but by resolution of the territorial deputation (February 10), its first member was appointed political chief, the military commander Captain José María Mata.

History of Baja California

Independence in Baja California

Due to the distance, partial isolation and the dynamics of the missionary system, the independence movement did not manifest itself in the same way in Baja California as in the rest of New Spain. Although the lack of supply and adequate communication was accentuated during this period, it was not until 1822 that the news of the political separation from Spain and the formation of a new national government was received, without any outbreaks having occurred at any time. of violence or insurrection. Added to the initial reluctance of the ruler of the province of Californias, José Ma. Arguello, was the arrival on the southern Californian coasts of the Englishman Thomas Cochrane and his fleet, from South America who had fought together with the Chilean independentists, but who in the peninsula he was seen as just another pirate.

The suspicion that the arrival of said character provoked lieutenant Fernando de la Toba precipitated the oath of Independence in San José del Cabo on March 7, 1822. Later, in a more formal way, José María Mata in Loreto, and the lieutenant and commander of La Frontera, José Manuel Ruiz, in the mission of San Vicente, did the same.

In June 1822, the imperial commissioner, Canon Agustín Fernández de San Vicente, arrived in Loreto to ensure the

Province’s adherence to the regime of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide and to establish the first municipal governments. Towards 1825 José Ma. De Echeandía, political leader of the time, made a political reorganization taking some of the old missions as district capitals and regulated the endowment of communal lands to the Indians without the intervention of the religious. This initial process of secularization was unsuccessful. The secularization plans of the missions would be carried out in a more radical way by Mariano Monterde in 1830 and by Castillo Negrete around 1841. Around 1830, Father Félix Caballero reorganized El Descanso, closing San Miguel or Misión Vieja, because El Descanso had better lands. The missions of Rosario and San Vicente also ceased to be missionary heads in this decade. From 1803 to 1855, when the last Dominican left the peninsula, the colonizing population increased considerably. For this non-indigenous population living in the northwest, Caballero founded the “mission” of Our Lady of Guadalupe in 1834. The Guadalupe mission was also an important military post in an area where indigenous uprisings were continuous. In 1840, a succession of violent acts ended the mission of Guadalupe itself and that of Santa Catarina, which was destroyed and burned in that same year.

Marco Antonio Samaniego López (coordinator)

INDEPENDENCE IN BAJA CALIFORNIA

With the War of Independence in Mexico, the transportation of supplies to the Californias was interrupted. A severe drought that seriously affected the economy of the peninsula worsened the situation that continued for some time. Although official reports tend to exaggerate the need for more help from higher authorities,

different sources suggest that the inhabitants of the Californias lacked supplies during the last years of the missionary period. Additionally, both missionaries and soldiers did not receive their salaries, so they could not acquire the most necessary items. In a report, Fernando de la Toba, interim commander of the Loreto prison, pointed out: “The warehouse of this prison has no goods with which to cover the nudity of the troops and the navy: they lack the necessary provisions to be able to force one and the other to performance of their peculiar obligations and in a word there is a total lack of everything that is necessary to provide the best service in the nation.

Once the Independence was consummated, the news reached the Californias along with the necessary documents to carry out the formal swearing-in. In Las Fronteras this was carried out in

San Vicente on May 16, 1822 by José Manuel Ruiz, military authority of the region, who performed the ceremony in front of the bodyguard and the body of guard.

Independence in Baja California

Due to the distance, partial isolation and the dynamics of the missionary system, the independence movement did not manifest itself in the same way in Baja California as in the rest of New Spain. Although the lack of supply and adequate communication was accentuated during this period, it was not until 1822 that the news of the political separation from Spain and the formation of a new national government was received, without any outbreaks having occurred at any time. of violence or insurrection. Added to the initial reluctance of the ruler of the province of Californias, José Ma. Arguello, was the arrival on the southern Californian

coasts of the Englishman Thomas Cochrane and his fleet, from South America who had fought together with the Chilean independentists, but who in the peninsula he was seen as just another pirate.

The suspicion that the arrival of said character provoked Lieutenant Fernando de la Toba precipitated the oath of Independence in San José del Cabo on March 7, 1822. Later, in a more formal way, Ensign José María Mata in Loreto, and the lieutenant and commander of La Frontera, José Manuel Ruiz, in the mission of San Vicente, did the same.

In June 1822, the imperial commissioner, Canon Agustín Fernández de San Viciente, arrived in Loreto to ensure the adherence of the Province to the regime of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide and establish the first municipal governments. Around 1825 José Ma. De Echeandía, political chief of the time, made a political reorganization taking some of the old missions as district heads and regulated the endowment of communal lands to the Indians without the intervention of the religious. This initial process of secularization was unsuccessful. The secularization plans of the missions would be carried out in a more radical way by Mariano Monterde in 1830 and by Castillo Negrete around 1841. Around 1830, Father Félix Caballero reorganized El Descanso, closing San Miguel or Misión Vieja, because El Descanso had better lands. The missions of Rosario and San Vicente also ceased to be missionary heads in this decade. From 1803 to 1855, when the last Dominican left the peninsula, the colonizing population increased considerably. For this non-indigenous population living in the northwest, Caballero

founded the “mission” of Our Lady of Guadalupe in 1834. The Guadalupe mission was also an important military post in an area where indigenous uprisings were continuous. In 1840, a succession of violent acts ended the mission of Guadalupe itself and that of Santa Catarina, which was destroyed and burned in that same year.

Marco Antonio Samaniego López (coordinator)

INDEPENDENCE IN BAJA CALIFORNIA

With the War of Independence in Mexico, the transportation of supplies to the Californias was interrupted. A severe drought that seriously affected the economy of the peninsula worsened the situation that continued for some time. Although official reports tend to exaggerate the need for more help from higher authorities, different sources suggest that the inhabitants of the Californias lacked supplies during the last years of the missionary period. Additionally, both missionaries and soldiers did not receive their salaries, so they could not acquire the most necessary items. In a report, Fernando de la Toba, interim commander of the Loreto prison, pointed out: “The warehouse of this prison has no goods with which to cover the nudity of the troops and the navy: they lack the necessary provisions to be able to force one and the other to performance of their peculiar obligations and in a word there is a total lack of everything that is necessary to provide the best service in the nation.

Once the Independence was consummated, the news reached the Californias along with the necessary documents to carry out

the formal swearing-in. In Las Fronteras this was carried out in San Vicente on May 16, 1822 by José Manuel Ruiz, military authority of the region, who performed the ceremony in front of the bodyguard and the body of guard.

Independence in Baja California

Due to the distance, partial isolation and the dynamics of the missionary system, the independence movement did not manifest itself in the same way in Baja California as in the rest of New Spain. Although the lack of supply and adequate communication was accentuated during this period, it was not until 1822 that the news of the political separation from Spain and the formation of a new national government was received, without any outbreaks having occurred at any time. of violence or insurrection. Added to the initial reluctance of the ruler of the province of Californias, José Ma. Arguello, was the arrival on the southern Californian coasts of the Englishman Thomas Cochrane and his fleet, from South America who had fought together with the Chilean independentists, but who in the peninsula he was seen as just another pirate.

The suspicion that the arrival of said character provoked Ensign Fernando de la Toba precipitated the oath of Independence in San José del Cabo on March 7, 1822. Later, in a more formal way, Ensign José María Mata in Loreto, and the lieutenant and commander of La Frontera, José Manuel Ruiz, in the mission of San Vicente, did the same.

In June 1822, the imperial commissioner, Canon Agustín Fernández de San Viciente, arrived in Loreto to ensure the adherence of the Province to the regime of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide and establish the first municipal governments.

Around 1825 José Ma. De Echeandía, political chief of the time, made a political reorganization taking some of the old missions as Fernando Jordan

The Sea of Cortez: Biography of a Gulf

DATA FOR HISTORIANS

The grave of Fernando de la Toba, the Biscayan who proclaimed Independence in Baja California, is in the cemetery corresponding to the La Presa ranch, which can be reached by La Paz or by the coast, disembarking in San Evaristo or Los Pains

Governors of the Province of Baja California in colonial times, from 1697 to 1822

Fernando de la Toba 1814-1815

1814 On the death of Captain Felipe de Goicoechea (buried with honors in Loreto), Fernando de la Toba is appointed temporarily as governor of Baja California, who held the position until December 1815. In a letter dated in the Loreto presidio, the August 3, Fernando de la Toba, interim commander of the place, communicates the news to the viceroy of New Spain, Félix María Callejas, and to the king: “On the night of last September 7, the

governor died in this prison of natural death. that it was from this province, Don Felipe Goicoechea ”.

In December 1814, José Darío Argüello, was appointed interim governor of Alta California, due to the death of José Joaquín de Arrillaga, a short period since in 1815 he was appointed governor of Baja California.

1815 October The last governor of colonial California was appointed, Captain José Darío Argüello, who at the time was serving as interim governor of Alta California due to the death of José Joaquín de Arrillaga. Argüello concluded the colonial period until 1822, replacing the interim governor, Ensign Fernando de la Toba Argüello.

March 1821 Orders were issued for the strict observance and swearing of the Constitution of Cádiz in the California peninsula. April 1. The governor of the peninsula, captain of the Presidial Cavalry, José Darío Argüello, commissioned Lieutenant Fernando de la Toba to carry out the first elections for the municipalities established by the Spanish Constitution of Cádiz.

April 11 Ensign Fernando de la Toba issues a first neighborhood convocation to elect municipalities in San Antonio, San José del Cabo and Todos Santos (southern jurisdiction); In this election held in San Antonio, Francisco Cota (local merchant, miner and rancher) were elected as the main mayor of the south; José Salvador de Castro, second mayor and Manuel Salgado, as

auxiliary mayor, respectively. These municipalities did not have a building body. San José del Cabo depended politically and economically on San Antonio, which was not to the liking of the Josefinos. It is said that in this first documented municipal election an erroneous interpretation of the constitution was made regarding the formation and election of city councils, since by electing three mayors it does not mean that three city councils were established, when there was only one for that demarcation. Voting at that time was not nominal, there were electors proportional to the number of inhabitants: nine electors for every thousand inhabitants, 17 electors for between one thousand and five thousand inhabitants, and 25 electors for more than five thousand inhabitants.

Toba, who assumes the civil and military command due to Argüello’s illness; Once the latter has been reestablished, he returns to exercise authority on October 6.

1822 January 1st The second electoral process was carried out to elect the body of the City Council of San Antonio, southern jurisdiction, resulting in the mayor of the first vote, Juan Bautista Talamantes for San Antonio; second vote for San José del Cabo, Joaquín Carrillo; councilman of first vote, Rafael Amador for Todos Santos; of second vote for the town of Santiago, José María Araiza; third vote for San Antonio, Juan José Angulo, and

trustee, Antonio Navarro. Being elected Principal Mayor, retired sergeant Juan Bautista Talamantes, takes a protest before Lieutenant Fernando de la Toba, commander of arms of the southern jurisdiction. For the municipality of San José del Cabo, Mr. Joaquín Carrillo is appointed as mayor. In San José del Cabo there was disagreement with the election of Carrillo, who went on to name José María de Castro. The evidence allows us to believe that the city of San José del Cabo was established as such, until 1824, once the Mexican Constitution was established. February 25 Fernando de la Toba, commander of arms of the southern jurisdiction, declared the freedom of the peninsula in San Antonio and the adhesion to the new government, it is said that due to intimidation of Captain Wilkinson of Independencia. March 18 Fernando de la Toba, commander of arms of the southern jurisdiction, swears and proclaims for the second time, now in the mission of San José del Cabo, the Act of National Independence.

April 15 Captain José Darío Argüello retakes authority as political and military chief.

May 16 José Manuel Ruiz, commander of La Frontera, swears independence

of Mexico in the Partido de Frontera –in the mission of San Vicente–, on the orders of Captain Argüello.

June Canon Agustín Fernández de San Vicente is commissioned by the Emperor of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, as ambassador of the Californias. Fernández de San Vicente not only came as an ecclesiastical commissioner, but also as a representative of the Iturbide government. Fernández de San Vicente brought the task of convincing the Dominican missionaries to swear allegiance to the new system and government (it must be remembered that the missionaries were against the independence movement). Upon his arrival, Argüello presented his resignation, arguing for health reasons and his advanced age.

When the priest Fernández de San Vicente arrived in the peninsular territory, he did not think to establish any institution in the port of La Paz, since it was practically depopulated, there were less than 10 families. The imperial commissioner dismissed Governor Argüello and appointed Fernando de la Toba as the first governor of the Californias – interim political chief -. José Darío Argüello was the last colonial governor of the Baja California Peninsula, he remained in office for almost 34 years (from 1781 to 1822).

On the instructions of the imperial commissioner, the title of Political Chief replaced that of Governor, which was traditionally attributed to the captains of the Loreto presidio, thus, the first political chief that Baja California had was Fernando de la Toba. July 2 Fernández de San Vicente called elections to form the new Loreto city council, resulting in the election of Juan Higuera. July 7 The independence of Mexico is sworn once more in Loreto, with the Casa de Piedra as its precinct, under the auspices of

Fray Agustín Fernández de San Vicente. The event was attended by the interim political chief, the missionaries, the former governor, the newly elected councilors and their mayor Juan Higuera, the officers, soldiers and sailors of the prison and some inhabitants of Loreto, where obedience is sworn, and culminates with chimes of bell, salvo, artillery, mass and a dance. Municipal life began in Baja California, when the imperial commissioner, Agustín Fernández de San Vicente, installed the first municipalities: Loreto, San Antonio and San José del Cabo, based on the Constitution of Cádiz of 1812. The municipalities immediately tried to take over letters on the matter of control, registration, adjudication and alienation of vacant land. The municipalities would be responsible for the care of order, primary education, health, public works, as well as the management and investment of their own taxes. The first Baja California city council that was formed in the Californias was Loreto, with Don Juan Higuera as its municipality. The shortage and economic need forced the same authorities to continue in office, which means that there were no municipal elections: Higuera was mayor of Loreto from 1821 to 1823, the year in which Domingo Aguiar occupied it for a brief period. until early 1824. July 27 The imperial commissioner, Agustín Fernández de San Vicente, issues in Loreto the Provisional Regulations that should govern the missions so that citizens are subject to the rules of the same. October 3, Before leaving the peninsula for Alta California, Agustín Fernández de San Vicente deposed Fernando de la Toba and appointed José Manuel Ruiz from Loreto. Lieutenant José

Manuel Ruiz Carrillo is appointed, after Independence, as the second governor of the Californias (political chief). He lasted in office until June 1825, already at the time of the federal republic when he was succeeded by Echeandía. Ruiz issued 35 property titles during his tenure, corresponding to 37 large cattle sites. He died in La Paz on September 18, 1835. In the ecclesiastical archive of San José del Cabo, in the marriage book that corresponds to the years 1822 to 1855, there is at the beginning the following note: “Having visited Father Pedro González To this mission and not having found a marriage book, due to the incursion of pirates, the father ordered a new one to be formed and inserting the games that occurred five months in advance … ”Let us remember that Lord Cochrane’s men sacked the town, including the church, in which they burned the archive, of salvageable, much valuable material could be obtained. 1822 Antonio María Ocio, great-grandson of Don Manuel de Ocio, married in San José del Cabo with Dolores Argüello, youngest daughter of Don José Darío Argüello, the last colonial governor of Baja California. Antonio María emigrated to Alta California, with the American invasion, and returned to San José del Cabo already married in a second marriage to Narcisa Soto. It was occupied by Domingo Aguiar for a brief period until the beginning of 1824.

1837 La Paz was officially declared the capital of the Territory of Baja California. La Paz had become the main settlement on the peninsula. With the impulse given by Negrete, he acquired the highest rank in the administrative political structure of the

peninsula. La Paz became the most important municipality in the District and San José del Cabo supplanted San Antonio as the political head in the southern zone. La Paz already had 17 established merchants.

January 31 The La Paz city council appoints an unconditional of Mata, the captain of the Militias Fernando de la Toba, who assumed the governorship of the Territory of Baja California for the second time, a position he held until May 7, already who was replaced a few months later by the lawyer Luis del Castillo Negrete.

Birthplace of Fernando de la Toba (Tova)

 

Last days of Fernando de la Toba

Introduction Fernando died in 1844 by a campsite all alone in the mountains of his Ranch. That was the same day of the wedding of his son, Pablo in La Paz Fernando ‘s home was in La Presa Baja South Mexico.